By Ms Nancy Wagner
The taking up of fluids or other substances.
The clumping together of antigen-bearing cells or particles in the presence of
To make alkaline (basic with pH more than 7).
"Starch-like." In myeloma, amyloid develops when pieces of immunoglobulin
(referred to as light chains) deposit in tissues. Organ failure can occur as a result.
Decrease in red blood cells.
Variation in the color of erythrocytes due to unequal hemoglobin content.
A substance that interferes or counteracts.
Any of various proteins (immunoglobulins) in the blood that are generated
in reaction to foreign proteins or polysaccharides, thus producing an immunity
against certain microorganisms or their toxins.
A substance that stimulates the production of an antibody.
A procedure in which blood is withdrawn, a specific portion
(plasma, platelets, etc.) is separated and withheld, while
the remainder is returned to the patient.
ß2 MICRO GLOBULIN
A protein that sheds off of dividing cells. It can be detected in the blood.
In multiple myeloma, the higher the level the worse the prognosis.
A leukocyte which contains vaso-active amines.
A thiamine deficiency disease of the peripheral nervous system characterized by
partial paralysis of the extremities, emaciation, and anemia.
Where one molecule attaches to another.
Treatment of disease by the injection of the substance which produces a biological
reaction in the organism.
BONE MARROW TEST (Sample)
A needle is placed at the edge of the hip bone and a small amount of liquid in the
center of the bone is withdrawn with a syringe. A solid core, the diameter of the
needle, is also obtained. The procedure takes approximately 30 minutes to
perform in the outpatient area.
A series of bone x-rays of the skull, spine, arms, ribs, and legs.
The use of chemical or biological anti-neoplastic agents for the treatment
or control of disease.
Prevention of the action by an effector's substance.
Any class of iron containing proteins important in cell metabolism.
A test done either on bone marrow cells or on blood cells. The test analyzes the
chromosomes within the cells.
The protoplasm of a cell not including the nucleus consisting of an aqueous solution. Where most of the chemical activity of the cell takes place.
An extension of the cytoplasm of a neuron, which makes up most of the receptive
surface of a neuron.
To make smaller or less.
The first or proximal portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus
to the jejunum: so called because it is about 12 fingerbreadths in length.
A leukocyte capable of phagocytosis and serves in mitigating allergic responses.
The yellowish, non-nucleated, disk-shaped blood cell that contains hemoglobin
and is responsible for the color of blood.
Matter excreted from blood, tissues, or organs.
A yellowish orange compound, a member of the B complex, occurring
in green plants, fresh fruits, and yeast and used to treat pernicious anemia.
Surgical excision of all or part of the stomach.
Can be any cell containing granules; however, is most often referring to a mature
leukocyte containing neutrophilic, basophilic, or eosinophilic granules in its
Order of developing cells that become the mature granulocyte or granular
leukocyte (basophil, eosinophil, or neutrophil); myeloblast, pro-myelocyte,
myelocyte, meta-myelocyte and mature segmented cell.
HEAVY CHAIN and LIGHT CHAIN
Immunoglobulins are made up of two types of proteins, called chains. The heavy
chains include two strands of protein named G, A, M, D, or E. The light chains
include two strands of protein called kappa ( k ) or lambda ( l ).
These chains are attached and are named according to the type of protein in the
heavy chain ( IgG, IgM, etc.). The Kappa light chain is the most common.
In plasma cell dyscrasia and multiple myeloma, the abnormal plasma cell
over-produces one type of immunoglobulin that is also abnormal.
The over-produced immunoglobulin gives the name for the type of Multiple
Myeloma (i.e. IgG and Kappa, the most common).
The volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood.
The oxygen-carrying pigment of the erythrocytes, formed by the developing
erythrocyte in bone marrow.
To impair the usefulness or value of hemoglobin.
The lysis (destruction) of red blood cells.
High concentration of blood calcium. Breakdown of bone (which is rich
in calcium) is the main cause of high blood and urine calcium. High calcium
can contribute to weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, confusion, and lethargy.
Arising spontaneously, without recognizable cause.
IMMUNE RESPONSE (Reaction)
The interaction of an antigen with lymphocytes to induce the formation of
The bodily system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues
by producing the immune response. This system includes the thymus, spleen,
lymph nodes, lymphocytes including the B cells and T cells, and immunoglobulins
including all known antibodies.
Treatment of or prophylaxis against disease by attempting to produce active
or passive immunity.
Within the substance of a muscle.
A mucoprotein found in the gastric juices which is necessary for the assimilation
and absorption of cyano-cobalamin (extrinsic factor) contained in food, and
essential for the absorption of vitamin B-12.
A white or colorless nucleated blood cell classified into granulocytes and
a-granulocytes, concerned with destroying bacteria and producing antibodies.
Low number of leukocytes in the blood less than 5000.
Made up of or divided into lobules.
A small mass or lobe of tissue.
A mononuclear leukocyte which is a product of lymphoid tissue that participates
in humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
A cellular organelle, involved in intracellular digestion, that contains hydrolytic
A large red blood cell over 9 microns.
Category of anemia's of various etiologies, characterized by larger than normal
red cells, absence of central area of pallor and increased mean corpuscular volume
MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN (MCH)
Average hemoglobin content in red blood cells = hemoglobin in g/dL x l0
red cell count in millions/uL
MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION (MCHC)
The number of grams of hemoglobin per unit volume = hemoglobin (g/dL) x l00
MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV)
Volume of the average red blood cell = hematocrit x l0 (cubic micrometers)
estimated number of red cells
A large cell with a lobulated nucleus found in bone marrow, considered to be the
source of blood platelets.
Anemia characterized by the presence of megaloblasts (large red cells and
homogeneous cytoplasm with large nucleus and granular chromatin) in the
Staining differently with the same dye.
A granulocyte with a kidney-shaped nucleus intermediate in
development between a promyelocyte and the mature segmented
Monoclonal Gammopathy of undetermined significance.
M-protein found in the blood without the symptoms or other signs of cancer.
Also called M-protein or abnormal protein. This is a dysfunctional antibody
made by the myeloma cell. The amount of M-protein can be measured in the
blood to evaluate response to treatments.
A large phagocytic leukocyte containing eosinophilic granulations
in the cytoplasm.
A large mononuclear non-granular bone marrow cell, precursor of the myelocyte.
An immature neutrophilic granulocyte in between the promyelocyte and the
metamyelocyte in the leukocytic series.
MYELOMA TYPING, IMMUNOFIXATION
A very sensitive method of detecting the presence of abnormal protein. This test
does not show the amount of abnormal protein, only its presence.
A ferrous proto-porphyrin globin complex, present in cytoplasm. Myoglobin
contributes to the color of muscle and acts as a store of oxygen.
New growth of tissue serving no physiological function.
Decrease in white blood cell count (neutrophils).
A phagocytic granular leukocyte produced as a response to stress.
Any living thing.
Reduction in the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets.
Iron administered by intramuscularly, or intravenous
A megablastic anemia usually occurring in later adult life characterized by the
reduced ability to absorb B-12 from the gastrointestinal tract due to a failure
of gastric mucosal secretion of intrinsic factor.
A cell that ingests foreign material, debris, microorganisms, and other cells.
Letting of blood for diagnostic testing, transfusions, etc.
Pertaining to functions of the living organism and its parts.
A salt or ester of phylic acid.
Type of cell normally present in the body. It is responsible for making antibodies
(immunoglobulins) that fight infection and help destroy cancer cells. When the
immune system loses control over the plasma cell, it becomes cancerous. Thus,
the term plasma cell dyscrasia.
PLASMA CELL LABELING INDEX (PCLI)
The percentage of plasma cells that are actively dividing. The higher the number,
the worse the prognosis of the disease.
A collection of abnormal (cancerous) plasma cells forming a mass. This occurs
most commonly in the sinuses, upper respiratory tract, or bones.
Blood is drawn, plasma is separated and withheld, the packed red cells are
Circular or oval disks found in blood of all mammals, which is concerned in
coagulation of blood and contraction of the clot. Also called Thrombocyte.
A variation in the hemoglobin content of the erythrocytes
characterized by a variety of colors.
Any one of a group of complex compounds containing nitrogen found in plants
and animals which form the principal constituents of the cell protoplasm.
They are essentially combinations of amino acids and their derivatives.
The organized complex of substances (mainly proteins and water) that constitute
all plant and animal cells.
The portion of the jejunum that is closer to the duodenum as it extends from the
duodenum to the ileum.
This represents the levels of IgG. IgA, and IgM in the blood. This test shows
only the total amount of immunoglobulin and does not differentiate between
normal and abnormal.
Resistant to treatment or cure.
Return of disease after it has been in remission following treatment.
Disappearance of disease as a result of treatment. Complete remission means
all evidence of disease is gone. Partial remission means disease is improved
by treatment, but residual evidence of the disease is present.
A young red blood cell.
A group of red blood corpuscles resembling a stack of coins.
A condition due to deficiency of Vitamin C marked by weakness, anemia,
spongy gums, and hardening of the muscles.
SERUM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS (SPEP)
This is a test that is used to accurately estimate the amount of abnormal protein.
It should not be used for screening, as it could miss the abnormal protein if only
small amounts are present.
SHIFT TO THE LEFT
An increase in immature leukocytes in the circulating blood. May be caused by
infection, physiologic disorder, or hematologic disorder.
SHIFT TO THE RIGHT
An increase in mature leukocytes in the circulating blood. May be caused by
a vitamin B-12 or folic acid deficiency.
Done or happening together (at the same time).
The artificial building of a chemical compound by the union of its elements.
Increase in the number of platelets.
A decrease in the number of platelets.
Metachromatic granules seen in bacterial infections and burns.
Circulating metal (iron) not bound to a compound or a blood constituent.
URINE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS (UPEP)
A method to measure the percent of abnormal protein in the urine.
This test must be done along with a "24-hour" urine protein test
In order to accurately determine the amount of abnormal protein.
Not clear, definite, or distinct in form, meaning or purpose.
Page Last Updated 08/20/2003 08:54:20 PM