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By Ms Nancy Wagner

 

ABSORPTION

The taking up of fluids or other substances.

AGGLUTINATION

The clumping together of antigen-bearing cells or particles in the presence of

specific antibodies.

ALKALINIZING AGENT

To make alkaline (basic with pH more than 7).

AMYLOID

"Starch-like." In myeloma, amyloid develops when pieces of immunoglobulin

(referred to as light chains) deposit in tissues. Organ failure can occur as a result.

ANEMIA

Decrease in red blood cells.

ANISOCHROMIA

Variation in the color of erythrocytes due to unequal hemoglobin content.

ANTAGONIST

A substance that interferes or counteracts.

ANTIBODIES

Any of various proteins (immunoglobulins) in the blood that are generated

in reaction to foreign proteins or polysaccharides, thus producing an immunity

against certain microorganisms or their toxins.

ANTIGEN

A substance that stimulates the production of an antibody.

APHERESIS

A procedure in which blood is withdrawn, a specific portion

(plasma, platelets, etc.) is separated and withheld, while

the remainder is returned to the patient.

2 MICRO GLOBULIN

A protein that sheds off of dividing cells. It can be detected in the blood.

In multiple myeloma, the higher the level the worse the prognosis.

BASOPHIL

A leukocyte which contains vaso-active amines.

BERIBERI

A thiamine deficiency disease of the peripheral nervous system characterized by

partial paralysis of the extremities, emaciation, and anemia.

BINDING SITES

Where one molecule attaches to another.

BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

Treatment of disease by the injection of the substance which produces a biological

reaction in the organism.

BONE MARROW TEST (Sample)

A needle is placed at the edge of the hip bone and a small amount of liquid in the

center of the bone is withdrawn with a syringe. A solid core, the diameter of the

needle, is also obtained. The procedure takes approximately 30 minutes to

perform in the outpatient area.

BONE SURVEY

A series of bone x-rays of the skull, spine, arms, ribs, and legs.

CHEMOTHERAPY

The use of chemical or biological anti-neoplastic agents for the treatment

or control of disease.

COMPETITIVE INHIBITION

Prevention of the action by an effector's substance.

CYTOCHROMIC ENZYME

Any class of iron containing proteins important in cell metabolism.

CYTOGENETICS

A test done either on bone marrow cells or on blood cells. The test analyzes the

chromosomes within the cells.

CYTOPLASM

The protoplasm of a cell – not including the nucleus – consisting of an aqueous solution. Where most of the chemical activity of the cell takes place.

DENDRITE

An extension of the cytoplasm of a neuron, which makes up most of the receptive

surface of a neuron.

DIMINISHED

To make smaller or less.

DUODENUM

The first or proximal portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus

to the jejunum: so called because it is about 12 fingerbreadths in length.

EOSINOPHIL

A leukocyte capable of phagocytosis and serves in mitigating allergic responses.

ERYTHROCYTE

The yellowish, non-nucleated, disk-shaped blood cell that contains hemoglobin

and is responsible for the color of blood.

EXCRETION

Matter excreted from blood, tissues, or organs.

FOLIC ACID

A yellowish orange compound, a member of the B complex, occurring

in green plants, fresh fruits, and yeast and used to treat pernicious anemia.

GASTRECTOMY

Surgical excision of all or part of the stomach.

GRANULOCYTE

Can be any cell containing granules; however, is most often referring to a mature

leukocyte containing neutrophilic, basophilic, or eosinophilic granules in its

cytoplasm.

GRANULOCYTIC SERIES

Order of developing cells that become the mature granulocyte or granular

leukocyte (basophil, eosinophil, or neutrophil); myeloblast, pro-myelocyte,

myelocyte, meta-myelocyte and mature segmented cell.

HEAVY CHAIN and LIGHT CHAIN

Immunoglobulins are made up of two types of proteins, called chains. The heavy

chains include two strands of protein named G, A, M, D, or E. The light chains

include two strands of protein called kappa ( k ) or lambda ( l ).

These chains are attached and are named according to the type of protein in the

heavy chain ( IgG, IgM, etc.). The Kappa light chain is the most common.

In plasma cell dyscrasia and multiple myeloma, the abnormal plasma cell

over-produces one type of immunoglobulin that is also abnormal.

The over-produced immunoglobulin gives the name for the type of Multiple

Myeloma (i.e. IgG and Kappa, the most common).

HEMATOCRIT

The volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood.

HEMOGLOBIN

The oxygen-carrying pigment of the erythrocytes, formed by the developing

erythrocyte in bone marrow.

HEMOGLOBIN DEFACE

To impair the usefulness or value of hemoglobin.

HEMOLYSIS

The lysis (destruction) of red blood cells.

HYPERCALCEMIA

High concentration of blood calcium. Breakdown of bone (which is rich

in calcium) is the main cause of high blood and urine calcium. High calcium

can contribute to weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, confusion, and lethargy.

IDIOPATHIC

Arising spontaneously, without recognizable cause.

IMMUNE RESPONSE (Reaction)

The interaction of an antigen with lymphocytes to induce the formation of

antibodies.

IMMUNE SYSTEM

The bodily system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues

by producing the immune response. This system includes the thymus, spleen,

lymph nodes, lymphocytes including the B cells and T cells, and immunoglobulins

including all known antibodies.

IMMUNE THERAPY

Treatment of or prophylaxis against disease by attempting to produce active

or passive immunity.

INTRAMUSCULARLY

Within the substance of a muscle.

INTRINSIC FACTOR

A mucoprotein found in the gastric juices which is necessary for the assimilation

and absorption of cyano-cobalamin (extrinsic factor) contained in food, and

essential for the absorption of vitamin B-12.

LEUKOCYTE

A white or colorless nucleated blood cell classified into granulocytes and

a-granulocytes, concerned with destroying bacteria and producing antibodies.

LEUKOPENIA

Low number of leukocytes in the blood – less than 5000.

LOBULATED

Made up of or divided into lobules.

LOBULE

A small mass or lobe of tissue.

LYMPHOCYTE

A mononuclear leukocyte which is a product of lymphoid tissue that participates

in humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

LYSOSOMES

A cellular organelle, involved in intracellular digestion, that contains hydrolytic

enzymes.

MACROCYTE

A large red blood cell – over 9 microns.

MACROCYTIC ANEMIA

Category of anemia's of various etiologies, characterized by larger than normal

red cells, absence of central area of pallor and increased mean corpuscular volume

and hemoglobin.

MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN (MCH)

Average hemoglobin content in red blood cells = hemoglobin in g/dL x l0

red cell count in millions/uL

MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION (MCHC)

The number of grams of hemoglobin per unit volume = hemoglobin (g/dL) x l00

                                                                                            hematocrit

MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV)

Volume of the average red blood cell = hematocrit x l0 (cubic micrometers)

estimated number of red cells

MEGAKARYOCYTE

A large cell with a lobulated nucleus found in bone marrow, considered to be the

source of blood platelets.

MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA

Anemia characterized by the presence of megaloblasts (large red cells and

homogeneous cytoplasm with large nucleus and granular chromatin) in the

bone marrow.

METACHROMATIC

Staining differently with the same dye.

METAMYELOCYTE

A granulocyte with a kidney-shaped nucleus intermediate in

development between a promyelocyte and the mature segmented

granular leukocyte.

MGUS

Monoclonal Gammopathy of undetermined significance.

MINUTE

Very small.

MONOCLONAL GAMMOPATHIES

M-protein found in the blood without the symptoms or other signs of cancer.

MONOCLONAL PROTEIN

Also called M-protein or abnormal protein. This is a dysfunctional antibody

made by the myeloma cell. The amount of M-protein can be measured in the

blood to evaluate response to treatments.

MONOCYTE

A large phagocytic leukocyte containing eosinophilic granulations

in the cytoplasm.

MYELEOBLAST

A large mononuclear non-granular bone marrow cell, precursor of the myelocyte.

MYELOCYTE

An immature neutrophilic granulocyte in between the promyelocyte and the

metamyelocyte in the leukocytic series.

MYELOMA TYPING, IMMUNOFIXATION

A very sensitive method of detecting the presence of abnormal protein. This test

does not show the amount of abnormal protein, only its presence.

MYOGLOBIN

A ferrous proto-porphyrin globin complex, present in cytoplasm. Myoglobin

contributes to the color of muscle and acts as a store of oxygen.

NEOPLASM

New growth of tissue serving no physiological function.

NEUTROPENIA

Decrease in white blood cell count (neutrophils).

NEUTROPHIL

A phagocytic granular leukocyte produced as a response to stress.

ORGANISM

Any living thing.

PANCYTOPENIA

Reduction in the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets.

PARENTERAL IRON

Iron administered by  intramuscularly, or intravenous

injection.

PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

A megablastic anemia usually occurring in later adult life characterized by the

reduced ability to absorb B-12 from the gastrointestinal tract due to a failure

of gastric mucosal secretion of intrinsic factor.

PHAGOCYTE

A cell that ingests foreign material, debris, microorganisms, and other cells.

PHLEBOTOMY

Letting of blood for diagnostic testing, transfusions, etc.

PHYSIOLOGICAL

Pertaining to functions of the living organism and its parts.

PHYTATE

A salt or ester of phylic acid.

PLASMA CELL

Type of cell normally present in the body. It is responsible for making antibodies

(immunoglobulins) that fight infection and help destroy cancer cells. When the

immune system loses control over the plasma cell, it becomes cancerous. Thus,

the term plasma cell dyscrasia.

PLASMA CELL LABELING INDEX (PCLI)

The percentage of plasma cells that are actively dividing. The higher the number,

the worse the prognosis of the disease.

PLASMACYTOMA

A collection of abnormal (cancerous) plasma cells forming a mass. This occurs

most commonly in the sinuses, upper respiratory tract, or bones.

PLASMAPHERESIS

Blood is drawn, plasma is separated and withheld, the packed red cells are

re-injected.

PLATELETS

Circular or oval disks found in blood of all mammals, which is concerned in

coagulation of blood and contraction of the clot. Also called Thrombocyte.

POLYCHROMASIA

A variation in the hemoglobin content of the erythrocytes

characterized by a variety of colors.

PROTEIN

Any one of a group of complex compounds containing nitrogen found in plants

and animals which form the principal constituents of the cell protoplasm.

They are essentially combinations of amino acids and their derivatives.

PROTOPLASM

The organized complex of substances (mainly proteins and water) that constitute

all plant and animal cells.

PROXIMAL JEJUNUM

The portion of the jejunum that is closer to the duodenum as it extends from the

duodenum to the ileum.

QUANTITATIVE IMMUNOGLOBULINS

This represents the levels of IgG. IgA, and IgM in the blood. This test shows

only the total amount of immunoglobulin and does not differentiate between

normal and abnormal.

RED CELL

Erythrocyte.

REFRACTORY

Resistant to treatment or cure.

RELAPSE

Return of disease after it has been in remission following treatment.

REMISSION

Disappearance of disease as a result of treatment. Complete remission means

all evidence of disease is gone. Partial remission means disease is improved

by treatment, but residual evidence of the disease is present.

RETICULOCYTE

A young red blood cell.

ROULEAUX

A group of red blood corpuscles resembling a stack of coins.

SCURVY

A condition due to deficiency of Vitamin C marked by weakness, anemia,

spongy gums, and hardening of the muscles.

SERUM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS (SPEP)

This is a test that is used to accurately estimate the amount of abnormal protein.

It should not be used for screening, as it could miss the abnormal protein if only

small amounts are present.

SHIFT TO THE LEFT

An increase in immature leukocytes in the circulating blood. May be caused by

infection, physiologic disorder, or hematologic disorder.

SHIFT TO THE RIGHT

An increase in mature leukocytes in the circulating blood. May be caused by

a vitamin B-12 or folic acid deficiency.

SIMULTANEOUSLY

Done or happening together (at the same time).

SYNTHESIS

The artificial building of a chemical compound by the union of its elements.

THROMBOCYTOSIS

Increase in the number of platelets.

THROMBOCYTOPENIA

A decrease in the number of platelets.

TOXIC GRANULATION

Metachromatic granules seen in bacterial infections and burns.

UNBOUND METAL

Circulating metal (iron) not bound to a compound or a blood constituent.

URINE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS (UPEP)

A method to measure the percent of abnormal protein in the urine.

This test must be done along with a "24-hour" urine protein test

In order to accurately determine the amount of abnormal protein.

VAGUE

Not clear, definite, or distinct in form, meaning or purpose.

WHITE CELL

Leukocyte

 
 
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